The three percussion instruments used in the performance kangen music are the shōkō, taiko, and kakko. The kakko is a small two-headed barrel drum about 30 cm in length and 15 cm in diameter (12 inches in length and 6 inches in diameter). The two heads are made of deerskin and they cover a circular frame about 23 cm in diameter (9 inches). The two heads are spread over an iron frame, and attached with a leather lace to a wooden body. It is struck with wooden sticks on both sides.

Kakko’s sticks

Figure 1

MIYAMARU Naoko The kakko is struck on both sides

Figure 2

The kakko has three types of strokes: a single stroke with the right stick called sei; a slow accelerando played with one stick called katarai; and a faster roll played with both sticks called morarai.

Katarai (2nd measure) Murorai (4th measure)

Example 1